Except for comparing average ages of
medallists, I have used the standard Chi Squared test throughout. Where there
was an a priori reason for thinking that a sign would have a positive effect on
the numbers of medallists for that sign, I used a one‑tailed test to obtain a
probability value. For example, it seemed reasonable to expect that Pisces
medallists would have significantly more rather than significantly less medals
in Swimming and Water Polo. In cases where there was no obvious reason to expect
a significant difference before doing the test, I used a two-tailed test.
It can be argued that the probabilities
stated in the test are not “real” probabilities because of the numbers of tests
needed to obtain them. This may be a valid argument in some two-tailed tests but
cannot possibly be used to explain away the extremely high probabilities
obtained in so many cases.
And it certainly cannot be used to
dismiss the Pisces effect.
The test on Pisces against Swimming was
the first one I tried, since it is the most obvious association to make. Pisces
against Water Polo is probably the second most obvious choice of association
There is another aquatic discipline
called Synchronised Swimming that may appear to be a candidate for association
with Pisces but closer inspection reveals that this is not the case.
Synchronised Swimming is actually a misnomer as the athletes scull rather than
swim and are judged more on their artistic interpretation than any other factor.